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Glossary of Common Terms at SNS

Androstenedione - a precursor to testosterone, between DHEA and testosterone. Increases serum testosterone, peaking at 1 1/2 hours, and returning to normal after 3 hours. Best use: one 100mg dose per day, before workout. NOT RECOMMENDED FOR WOMEN!

BCAA - Branched chain amino acids; Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. Speed recovery, reduce muscle soreness. May provide performance benefit in cyclists and runners, especially under hot conditions. When combined with Glutamine, can provide powerful anticatabolic benefit. Dosages range from 500mg to several grams per day.

Carbohydrate Replacment Drinks - Combination of complex carbs with some simple carbs, in a ratio of approximately 4:1 of maltodextrin:fructose, to aid in replacement of glycogen, immediately after exercise. Quickly replacing carbs after workout also helps stop the release of catabolic hormones. Typical serving size; 2 grams per pound of body weight.

Carnitine - helps free fatty acids in the bloodstream for use in aerobic exercise. Useful for long distance runners and cyclists to delay the depletion of glycogen. By same mechanism, also helps in fat loss. Typical use; 500-1000mg before exercise and during long events.

Chromium - trace mineral found in most sports supplements. Mimics the effects of insulin, aiding in glucose transport to muscles. Dosage: 200-1000mcg. daily.

CoQ10 - Coenzyme Q10. A prescription heart medication in Japan. Used in athletic situations for anaerobic threshold endurance. Used by heart attack sufferers to help prevent recurrence. Helps oxygenate tissue. May be useful in periodontal (gum) diseases. Typical dose: 30-100mg daily.

Creatine Monohydrate - powerful supplement for anaerobic activity (weight lifting, jumping, sprinting). Allows the body to regenerate ATP faster at limits of performance. Causes faster adaptation to stress, increasing performance. May aid in recovery. Typical dose: 5 grams (one heaping teaspoon) added to water or juice one hour before workout.

DHEA - "Mother of all hormones". Especially useful in older adults who may have diminished levels. Aids in production of sex hormones. Typical dose: 25mg to 100mg daily.

Echinacea - useful as natural antibiotic. Reported to lessen the severity and duration of colds. Often used in conjunction with Goldenseal. Typical dose: 400-500 mg.

EFA - Essential Fatty Acids. What is normally in fats that allow production of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other essential functions. In some low-fat diets, these may be missing. Some relief of PMS is reported. Most common sources; fish oil or flax seed oil.

Ephedrine - the product of the herb ma huang or ephedra. A stimulant which has been sold as asthma medication. Popular in diet and "energy" supplements. Causes increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Should not be used by people with problems with either. People on MAO inhibitors should not use. Common dosage: 10:1 ratio of caffeine to ephedrine. Watch for % yield on label. Average dose is 20mg ephedrine.

Fat Burners - usually refer to lipotropics or "fat movers". Choline, Inositol, and Methionine, when taken in combination, stimulate the liver to excrete slightly more dietary fat than normal (they do not remove stored bodyfat). When used with exercise and low fat diet, fat burners may help with fat loss by leaving less fat in the bloodstream after meals.

Fluid Replacment Drinks - usually contain 30-35 grams of maltodextrin/fructose per 16oz. (7% concentration). This formula allows processing of fluid at similar rate to plain water. Rehydrates and provides additional carbohydrates for extended performance. Some brands may add small amounts of herbs and stimulants, such as ginseng and caffeine.

Ginseng - three main types: Chinese or Korean, Siberian, and American. Siberian is really Eleutherococcus, a different plant. All are slight stimulants, with the Chinese/Korean the strongest. Typical dose: 500mg.

Glucosamine - one of the building blocks of cartilage. Together with Chondroitin, helps to stop degeneration of cartilage and possibly even help build new cartilage. Excellent anti-inflammatory results over time. Offers pain relief; in some studies, better than ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Common use: 1-3 grams per day; higher if pain is persistent.

Glutamine - one of the most abundant amino acids in the body. The brain uses it for fuel. Also serves as anticatabolic. Naturally occurring in whey protein, has been added to most sports protein products. Most common dose: one heaping teaspoon, or 4.5 grams.

Goldenseal - most often requested before drug tests. Helps clear toxins from bloodstream. Often used in conjunction with Echinacea to help recover from illness.

Meal Replacements- approximately 37 gram protein, 24 gram carb, low fat powder mix, in packets or bulk. Used as small meal, between regular meals. Good way to get low fat source of protein.

Melatonin - naturally occurring hormone produced by the pineal gland, manufactured in the body from the amino acid Tryptophan, which is then converted to serotonin. Very useful for travelers in dealing with jet lag. Aids in sleep for most people. Typical dose: 3mg. Those who do not get good results with melatonin might try 5-HTP.

Pyruvate - by-product of metabolism of glucose. Depending on type of exercise (aerobic or anaerobic), is converted into ATP or lactate, for re-use as fuel. May provide endurance benefit in aerobic situations and aids in fat metabolism. Dose: 2-5 grams daily.

Saw Palmetto - contains phytosterols that can inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dyhydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT may be a cause of enlargment of the prostate gland, and may be related to hair loss. Useful to men taking androstenedione or DHEA.

St. John's Wort - active ingredient hypericin has been shown to exhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity, acting as a natural antidepressant. Do not take with other MAO inhibiting drugs or supplements that advise against combining with MAO inhibitors (some people use St. John's Wort with ma huang to get a natural "Phen-Fen" replacement).

Whey Protein - whey isolate has the best ratio of amino acids of all other milk-based or milk+egg combination proteins. Whey protein mixes easier and tastes better than pure egg protein, and is much less expensive. Whey is high in BCAAs, and is highly digestible. Whey contains no lactose.

Yohimbe - nature's "Viagra". It's active ingredient, yohimbine, is a MAO inhibitor (see above combination cautions), which increases the dilation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. The enlargement of blood vessels is the primary reason for the use of yohimbe to improve sexual performance.